Who was Sosthenes?
Sosthenes is mentioned twice in NT scripture: -
Act 18:17 Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes, the chief ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. And Gallio cared for none of those things.
1Co 1:1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,
Background to the book of Acts which was written by Luke in AD 60 and writes about Pauls second missionary journey where he had left Athens and travelled to Corinth in AD 54 where he spend 18 months before heading to Ephesus.
Not a lot is said about Sosthenes but by looking into more of Acts 18 we can see he became a convert from 1 Corinthians 1:1.
Looking at verse 7 let’s look at some questions from it and from that delve more into the chapter.
1. Who was Sosthenes?
2. Why did the Greeks take Sosthenes to beat him?
3. What is a chief ruler of the synagogue?
4. What is the judgement seat?
5. Who is Gallio?
6. Why didn’t Gallio not care?
So Sosthenes was a new chief ruler of the synagogue who soon took over from Crispus. Crispus is mentioned in verses 8 who converted to Christianity along with his household. A chief ruler of the synagogue is someone who’s role would be the administrative officer supervising the worship (Vines Concise p52).
The Greeks took Sosthenes to beat him because in verses 12-15 Paul was taken to the deputy of Achaia, Gallio. It is interesting Gallio was the brother of the Stoic philosopher Seneca. The Jews that rose up against Paul, with his teachings of Jesus which was conflicting to their religion of Judaism.
Maybe the Greeks and the Jews saw the influence of the teachings of Paul with the conversion of Crispus and wanted Paul stopped. Judaism was approved by Roman law at this time, so Paul could have been tried for sedition.
When Paul came before Galllio to the judgment seat, this seat spoken off isn’t the Judgment seat of Christ mentioned in 2 Corinthians 5:10 but this was like a raised platform seat mounted by steps where a judge would sit in a courtroom.
Back in verse 9 the Lord came to Paul in a vision telling him not to be afraid, to keep speaking out and not to be silent because the Lord was with him and no one would attack or hurt him because there were many people in the city that belonged to the Lord.
I would imagine Paul thinking back to this vision as he is before Gallio at the judgment seat, “am I going to be beat up and whipped again” but in confidence he would remember what the Lord promised!
So, the Jews in verse 13 said before Gallio that Paul was persuading people to worship God in ways that was contrary to the Jewish law.
In verse 14 we see Paul just going to open his mouth to defend himself but Gallio butts in and turns to the Jewish accusers, shrugs his shoulders and says, were it a matter of wrongdoing or wicked lewdness like a serious crime, I would have a reason to bear with you or accept your case.
Verse 15 he goes on and presses the fact that be a “question of words and names and of your law, look yourselves in to it, for I will be no judge of such matters”. He then drove or threw them out.
This is where the Greek crowd seized Sosthenes and beat him right in front of the judgement seat where Gallio didn’t care and paid no attention. Why did Sosthenes get beat up, I don’t know, maybe for a weak case against Paul.
I see this was the right opportune time for Paul to come back to a beat up Sosthenes, to help him clean his wounds and to witness and minister to him. Paul knew all about being beat up to near death as part of his witness for Jesus.
Through the witnessing of Paul and nursing Sosthenes I believe this is the same man in 1 Corinthians 1:1, calling him brother, how close and loving they must of became.
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Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
(4) Caught three hundred foxes.--Rather, three hundred jackals. The word Shualim is used for both; but it would be difficult to catch three hundred foxes, whereas the jackals are still heard howling in herds about these very regions at night. They must have been still more common in Palestine in ancient days, and hence we find such names as "the land of Shual" (1Samuel 13:17), Hazar-shual ("jackal's enclosure," Joshua 15:28), Shalim (1Samuel 11:4), Shaalabbin ("place of foxes or jackals," Joshua 19:42). There would be no difficulty in trapping them; nor is it said that they were all let loose at once.
Turned tail to tail.--This implies that he tied the tails together (LXX., suned?sen; Vulag.,junxit).
Put a firebrand in the midst.--The firebrands were pieces of resinous wood, like Gideon's torches (Judges 7:20), which were loosely trailed between the tails of the jackals. The object of tying two together was to impede their motion a little, so that they might not dart away so violently as to extinguish the torch.
Verse 4. - Foxes. The word here rendered fox (shu'al, in Persian shagal, which is etymologically the same word as jackal) includes the jackal, which is as common in Palestine as the fox. Here, and in Psalm 63:10, the gregarious jackals, the canis aureus, are undoubtedly meant. Caught. The Hebrew word means especially caught in nets or snares. See Amos 3:5 (have taken nothing at all); Psalm 35:8 (let his net catch himself); Jeremiah 18:22; Isaiah 8:14 (taken), etc. And it is in this sense that the A.V. uses the word caught. A clever sportsman, as no doubt Samson was, would have no difficulty whatever in netting or snaring 300 jackals, which always move in packs, and would be attracted by the vineyards of Thimnathah, for which their partiality is well known (see Judges 14:5, note). The writer of the additional article Fox in Smith's 'Dictionary of the Bible,' states that he had tried the experiment of throwing grapes to the foxes, jackals, and wolves in the Zoological Gardens. The wolves would not touch them, the others ate them with avidity. Took firebrands, etc. Many cavils have been directed against the truth of this account, but without the slightest reason. The terrified animals, with the burning torches and the blazing straw behind them, would necessarily run forwards. Samson would, of course, start the couples at numerous different points, and no doubt have a number of Hebrews to assist him. To the present day the corn-fields in that part of the Shephelahextend continuously for twenty or thirty miles.
Judges 15:4-5 Then Samson went and caught three hundred foxes; and he took torches, turned the foxes tail to tail, and put a torch between each pair of tails. When he had set the torches on fire, he let the foxes go into the standing grain of the Philistines, and burned up both the shocks and the standing grain, as well as the vineyards and olive groves.
What he decided to do, as we might see in today's newspapers, was to go on a multimillion-dollar arson spree.
The word, "foxes," would be better-translated "jackals." The Hebrews used the same word for both animals. If you know the difference between a fox, and a jackal, you can understand why most commentators feel that jackals is the better translation. Foxes are solitary animals. They avoid human habitations, usually. We know them as sneaky, and hard to catch, and cunning.
Do you remember seeing at one time or another an old movie with an English foxhunt? Typically, they might have 30 dogs, and 30 men on horseback chasing one little fox. And foxes often get away.
Jackals, on the other hand, are pack running dog-like animals. They run in packs, they tend to be braver around human habitations—safer in numbers, I suppose. Since they are in groups nearer to human habitation, they would be easier to catch in greater numbers than foxes.
Animals have to sleep sometime. I know people who have talked about going cow tipping and there are movies about that.
If you were to feed squirrels, it wouldn't take long before they climb up on you. I remember people feeding racoons at the Valley Green Inn in Fairmount park Philadelphia.
I was reading through Judges 15 and came to verse 4
And Samson went and caught three hundred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the midst between two tails.
How did he catch so many?
Such sad news...
I am writing this morning’s Daily Article with a grieving heart.
I became a Christian in a Southern Baptist Sunday school class and was baptized in a Southern Baptist church. I was licensed and ordained as a vocational minister in that church. I attended college at a Texas Baptist university and graduate school at a Southern Baptist seminary. I taught on that seminary’s faculty and pastored four churches affiliated in various ways with the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC).
Incredible news from Will Graham of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association
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The Paradox of a Righteous Lot - By Pete Garcia -
Most of us alive here in America tend to see the world with a western worldview. This worldview works fine for everyday life, but can cause the average western believer consternation when trying to make sense of certain parts of the Scriptures. All Scripture is giving by inspiration of God through the Holy Spirit (2 Tim 3:16), but what we fail to sometimes take into account, was that the men who physically wrote the Bible, were all from the Oriental world.
The Old Testament was written almost entirely in Hebrew and with a small portion in Aramaic. The New Testament was written entirely in Koine Greek (the common vernacular of the day). Nevertheless, it was Jewish men, who thought with a Hebraic mindset, which wrote both Old and New Testaments. Therefore, when we modern westerners get to certain parts of the scriptures, the text seems to be paradoxical and we often times get perplexed at the seeming contradictions.
However, to the Hebrew mind, opposing ideas could be equally accepted at the same time. Patterns that formed cycles were key to understanding the fullness of the entirety of the message. The Hebrew culture (like other eastern cultures) used what has been deemed, "block logic", and in Marvin Wilson's "Our Father Abraham-Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith", he makes some interesting points about the two:
The use of what may be termed block logic is another important contour of Hebrew thought. Greek logic, which has to a large extent influenced the Western world, was different. The Greeks often used a tightly contained step logic whereby one would argue from premises to a conclusion, each step linked tightly to the next in coherent, rational, logical fashion. The conclusion, however, was usually limited to one point of view-the human being's perception of reality
The Hebrew knew he did not know all the answers. His position was 'under the sun' (Ecc. 8:17), so his words were few (5:2). He refused to over-systematize or forced harmonization on the enigmas of God's truth or the puzzles of the universe. He realized that no one could straighten what God has made crooked (7:13). All things, therefore, did not need to be fully rational. The Hebrew mind was willing to accept the truths taught on both sides of the paradox; it recognized that mystery and apparent contradictions are often signs of the divine. Stated succinctly, the Hebrews knew the wisdom of learning to trust in matters that they could not fully understand.
In layman's terms, those influenced in western thought, i.e....the Greco-Roman world-view, understood things in a linear, logical manner. We try to apply logic to a problem in order to come up with the most logical solution. Applying this type of mental methodology to Bible prophecy, can often times frustrates the purpose, which then causes confusion. Marvin Wilson provides some excellent examples in which 'block logic' is used in Scriptures:
The book of Exodus says that Pharaoh hardened his heart, but it also says that God hardened it (Ex. 8:15; cf. 7:3). The prophets teach that God is both wrathful and merciful (Isa. 45:7; Hab. 3:2). The New Testament refers to [Yeshua] as the 'Lamb of God' and the 'Lion of the tribe of Judah' (Jn. 1:29, 36; Rev. 5:5). Hell is described as both 'blackest darkness' and the fiery lake' (Jude 13; Rev. 19:20). In terms of salvation, [Yeshua] said, 'whoever comes to me I will never drive away,' yet no one can come 'unless the Father draws him' (Jn. 6:37, 44). To find life you must lose it (Mt. 10:39). When you are weak, then you are strong (2 Cor. 12:10). The way up (exaltation) is the way down (humility) (Lk. 14:11). 'Jacob have I loved and Esau have I hated' (Rom. 9:13; Mal. 1:3).
Block logic is the mindset, that one can accept two opposing ideas as both equally true... it all depends on whose perception one is looking through.
Old Testament Lot
Throughout the entirety of his account beginning in Genesis chapter 11, through chapter 19, Lot was always living in the shadow of his older cousin Abram (Abraham). When they arrived at Canaan, Abram gave him the choice cut of land and they parted ways. A little later on, some wicked kings kidnapped Lot and Abram had to come to the rescue. From there, the Lord and two angels visit Abraham and give him a heads up, that they were going to visit Sodom and Gomorrah, and then destroy it. Abraham, knowing Lot lived there, asked one of the most pivotal questions that sets the tone for the rest of the Scriptures:
And Abraham came near and said, "Would You also destroy the righteous with the wicked? Genesis 18:23
Two angels were dispatched to Sodom and Gomorrah, and there Lot met them at the gate. He persuaded them to come back to his house because he knew the kind of evil that would befall these visitors should they remain out in the open. However, this did not stop the men of the city from surrounding Lot's house and attempting to break down the door to get to them. Lot does what any "red-blooded father" would do...and he offers up his two daughters in exchange for these visitors safety. The outraged mob attempt to rush Lot and the visitors...
In addition, they (the mob) said,
"Stand back!" Then they said, "This one (Lot) came in to stay here, and he keeps acting as a judge; now we will deal worse with you than with them." So they pressed hard against the man Lot, and came near to break down the door. But the men reached out their hands and pulled Lot into the house with them, and shut the door. And they struck the men who were at the doorway of the house with blindness, both small and great, so that they became weary trying to find the door. Genesis 19:9-11
From there, the two visitors and Lot with family in tow depart the city early in the morning. Lot's wife looks back and is turned into a pillar of salt. Lot ends up in the mountains with his two daughters, and they get him drunk and seduce him so they could be impregnated.
Seems like Lot is always getting himself into some kind of precarious situation.
New Testament Lot
Lot is referenced twice in the New Testament; first in Luke 17, when Jesus referencing what the world will be like when He returns, pointed back to the wickedness of that time. The second mention is by the Apostle Peter. And here, Peter gives three different examples of the punishment in which God had served in the past to curb the wickedness in the world: the fallen angels who left their first estate and copulated with human women, the wicked people in Noah's day, and the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in Lot's day...
....and delivered righteous Lot, who was oppressed by the filthy conduct of the wicked (for that righteous man, dwelling among them, tormented his righteous soul from day to day by seeing and hearing their lawless deeds)- 2 Peter 2:7-8
WHAT?! Did I miss something in the Genesis account? Three times, Peter was moved by the Holy Spirit to call this man Lot righteous. What did we see of this man's life and actions in the Old Testament that would warrant him being addressed as righteous now?
Remember that thing about 'block logic'? There is where our perception and God's, see things differently.
Just turn on the news or read the Drudge Report one day and you can quickly see the awful wickedness that permeates this day and age we live in. Lot's circumstance was just a microcosm of what we experience today. Both news and travel have greatly increased (Dan 12:4), and we know what's going on in the world as it happens. Since bad news sells better than good news, we are inundated with as much of it as one can take.
Whether it's horrific crimes committed against the innocent, or wars, pestilence, famines, and corruption, you can be sure that no matter where you look, you don't have to look hard. For those of us who watch the signs of the times, it can make you weary and long for the Lord to return. Even now we are being oppressed by the filthy conduct that is being pressed on us to accept as normal by the "civilized" world. The issues includes: drugs, gay marriage, abortion, anti-Christian propaganda, euthanasia, apostate and false religious movements, genetic engineering, and violence perpetrated against the Church in many parts of the world.
Is your soul tormented? If it's not, then your head is in the proverbial hole in the sand. Remember, we are tri-partite beings: body, soul, and spirit. Even though one is saved (revived spirit), our souls (the conscious) is being tested like never before. The floodgates of evil are being opened and we are getting just a taste of what's going to be turned loose during the Tribulation. Even now, we are weary and long to be home in heaven with our Savior.
For those who don't watch for the Lord's soon return, it's just business as usual. And that attitude often feeds the frustration many of us feel when sharing the gospel with urgency we know...with the apathetic or spiritually blinded who don't know how close to the end we really are, nor do they want to know.
The Pattern and the Plan
According to the Strong's Lexicon, Lot's name in Hebrew means "Covering" and since he had to be removed prior to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, we too will be removed prior to the Wrath of God being poured out on this world. As the body of Christ on earth, we are inhabited and sealed by the Holy Spirit, overcomers chosen by God before the foundation of the world ever came to be (Eph 1:4). [The Plan] At the Rapture, the Holy Spirit's ministry of restraint is likewise removed, and God's wrath is poured out on a Christ rejecting world. When the covering is removed, God's wrath was poured out on the plains cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. When the Church is removed (along with the Restrainer) the wrath will be poured out. This pattern is repeated throughout the Scriptures. God does not destroy the righteous with the wicked. [The Pattern] Although we don't see much righteousness in Lot's testimony, God did. Although we don't have much to brag about ourselves, God sees us as righteous through the shed blood of His Son on the cross at Calvary. It may not always make sense to us, but it does to God. And I love it when God's plan comes together!
For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. 2 Corinthians 5:2
The Government is moving ahead with plans to change the law to allow no-fault divorce, justice secretary David Gauke has confirmed.
Mr Gauke is to introduce legislation in the next session of Parliament that will eliminate the existing need for couples to aportion blame to their spouses as grounds for the divorce.
At present, the law offers the alternative of both parties living separately by mutual agreement for two years. But in some cases, the wait is longer if the couple are unable to prove that their marriage broke down because of adultery, unreasonable behaviour or desertion, or where one spouse is contesting the divorce, in which case they must live apart for five years before they can divorce.
This will all change with the legislation being brought in by the Government after submissions to its consultation on the reforms showed broad support. ...
While Americans have rightly mourned the passage of New York’s brutal abortion law allowing for the killing of pre-born babies up to full term, there are actually seven other states that similarly have no “gestational limits” on abortion.
Alaska, Colorado, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, and Vermont — along with Washington, D.C. — all allow women to kill their pre-born babies at any time up to full term. These policies have been on the books in those states for a number of years.
Additionally, reported the Christian Post, “all states that have laws banning late-term abortion still allow exceptions under certain circumstances, as noted by the Guttmacher Institute” — a pro-abortion “research” group launched by Planned Parenthood. Those exceptions include babies who may be born with physical disabilities, along with exemptions for the supposed health of a mother — which has come to ...
Birthdate04. 02. 1973
About meI am a Christian from Scotland and run this website. I am married with children of different ages that keeps me busy. My son is Autistic and doesn't speak.
LocationHelensburgh (United Kingdom)